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Covid-19 Salgınının Hatırlattığı Bir Hristiyan Azize: St. Corona ve Kültü

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 22 Sayı: 1, 113 - 149, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1064288

Öz

Koronavirüsün pek çok sahada olduğu gibi dinî sahada da etkileri ve sonuçları olmuştur. Bunlardan biri ise Hinduizm ve Hristiyanlık özelinde görülebilecek yeni tanrıçaların doğuşu ve eski bir azize ile kültünün güncellenerek yeniden işlev kazandırılmasıdır. Salgının patlak vermesinden çok kısa bir süre sonra, Hindistan’da Corona Devi ve Corona Mata gibi yeni tanrıçalar ortaya çıkmaya başlamıştır. Tanrıçaları var edenler, bu tanrıçaların, koronavirüs ve salgınla ilgili bazı nesne ve tasvirleri yansıttıkları putlarını dikmeyi, adlarına tapınaklar inşa etmeyi ve hatta bu tapınaklara rahipler tayin etmeyi de ihmal etmemişlerdir. Tarih boyunca çiçek, suçiçeği, veba ve kolera gibi çeşitli salgınlar karşısında korunmak için sürdürüle gelen bu Hinduist gelenek, koronavirüs salgınında da kendine mahsus şekilde ortaya çıkmıştır. Bahsi geçen tanrıçalara tapınan Hindulara göre koronavirüsün cisimleştirilmesinden ibaret olan bu putlara perestişin amacı, virüsün etkilerini hafifletmekti. Dolayısıyla bir tanrıça olarak şekillendirilen bu heykeller, virüsün kendisini temsil eden birer puttan başka bir şey değildi. Ona tapınanlar ise, bizzat kendi ifadelerine göre, onun yani virüsün şerrinden yine ona, yani virüsü temsil eden mezkûr tanrıçalara sığınıyorlardı. Hindistan’da, salgının renkli bir dinî gelenek üzerindeki etkileri arasında belki baş sırada sayılabilecek bu ilginç hadiseler yaşanırken, aynı anda, bambaşka bir coğrafya ve dinî bir iklimde de benzer bir gelişme görülmekteydi. Dünyanın, Hinduizm gibi çok tanrılı bir dine sahip bu doğu köşesindeki yeni doğan söz konusu tanrıçalara mukabil; teslisçi tanrı anlayışının bir sonucu olsa gerek muğlak bir tek tanrı inancına sahip Hristiyan dininin hâkim olduğu Batı köşesinde ise yeni tanrıçalar zuhur etmese de, dinin kendi teolojik yapısına uygun olarak ilahi güçler atfedilen eski bir azize yeniden hatırlanıyordu. Bu gelişme, aslında ilgili dindeki kökleri çok eskilere dayanan azizler kültünün modern bir yansımasını gösteren, güncel bir fenomen haline gelmiştir. Tarihleri boyunca Hristiyanlar da Hindular gibi salgın hastalık dönemlerinde salgından korunmak ya da kurtulmak için müracaat edebilecekleri ilahi olmakla birlikte somut merciler aramış ve bu mercileri azizlerde bulmuşlardır. Zira şifa söz konusu olduğunda dinin kendisi kadar eski bir gelenek ve pratikler silsilesi mevcuttur. İsa Mesih’ten havarilere ve onlardan da azizlere intikal ettiğine inanılan özel bir yetenek kapsamında değerlendirilen şifa, pek çok defa tıbbi değil dinî pratiklerden ve özellikle de mucizelerden beklenen bir netice olmuştur. Bu inançla hareket eden Hristiyanlar, çeşitli salgın zamanlarında, daha önceden aziz ilan edilen bazı kimselere o anki salgından koruyucu oldukları kabulüyle müracaat etmişler ve onlardan şifa yahut koruma beklemişlerdir. Bu köklü inanç ve pratik, çok uzun bir zaman önce yaşadığı kabul edilen ve salgının adaşı olması hasebiyle ilgi uyandıran bir azizeyle, yaşadığımız salgın sırasında da kendini göstermiştir. Bu azize, St. Corona adında, hakkında farklı kaynaklarda farklı detaylar bulunsa da miladi ikinci asırda yaşadığı kabul edilen, kadın bir figürdür. Zaman içinde oduncular, kasaplar, mezar kazıcıları, hazine avcıları, mali sıkıntı çeken ya da bol paraya kavuşmak isteyenler, piyango, kumar ve bahis oyuncuları gibi farklı grupların, onu koruyucu (patron) azize olarak gördüğü ve adı etrafında bir kültün oluştuğu bilinmektedir. Covid-19 salgını ile birlikte, salgına sebep olan virüsle aynı adı taşıması sebebiyle yeniden gündeme gelmiş ve kendisinin ‘zaten’ salgın hastalıklardan koruyucu azize olduğu iddia edilmiştir. Ancak tarihte böyle bir koruyuculuk işlevinin olduğu açık bir şekilde doğrulanamamaktadır. St. Corona, tarihte değilse bile, ‘artık’ salgınlardan ve özellikle de koronavirüs salgınından koruyucu bir azizedir. Bu çalışmada St. Corona’nın salgından koruyucu bir azize haline geliş süreci dijital medyanın verileri üzerinden takip edilecek ve ardından onun tarihî kişiliği tanıtılmaya çalışılacaktır.

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A Christian Saint Remembered by The Covid-19 Pandemic: St. Corona and Her Cult

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 22 Sayı: 1, 113 - 149, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1064288

Öz

As in many fields, the coronavirus has had effects and consequences in the religious field. One of them is the birth of new goddesses and the updating and re-functioning of an old saint and her cult that can be seen in Hinduism and Christianity. Shortly after the pandemic outbreak, new goddesses, Corona Devi and Corona Mata, began to appear in India. Those who created the goddesses did not neglect to erect idols of these goddesses, in which they reflect some objects and depictions related to the coronavirus and pandemic, to build temples in their names and even to appoint priests to these temples. This Hinduist tradition, which has been maintained throughout history to protect itself against various pandemics such as smallpox, chickenpox, plague, and cholera, has also emerged in its own way in the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of these idols, which, according to Hindus, who worshiped the aforementioned goddesses, consisted of the incarnation of the coronavirus, was to alleviate the effects of the virus. Therefore, these statues shaped as goddesses were nothing but idols representing the virus itself. Those who worshiped her, on the other hand, took refuge in the aforementioned goddesses, who represented the virus, from the evil of her, that is, the virus, according to their own statements. While these interesting events, which could perhaps be counted as the first among the effects of the pandemic on a colorful religious tradition, were taking place in India, a similar development was seen in completely different geography and religious climate at the same time. In contrast to the newly born goddesses in this eastern corner of the world, which has a polytheistic religion like Hinduism; although no new goddesses appeared in the western corner, where the ambiguous monotheistic Christian religion was dominant, an old saint to whom divine powers were ascribed in accordance with the religion's theological structure was being remembered again. This development has actually become a current phenomenon, showing a modern reflection of the cult of saints, which has its roots in the religion concerned. Throughout their history, Christians, like Hindus, sought divine but tangible authorities that they could apply to protect themselves from pandemics or to get rid of pandemics and found these authorities in saints. Because when it comes to healing, there is a chain of traditions and practices as old as religion itself. Healing, which is considered within the scope of a special ability believed to be inherited from Jesus Christ to the apostles and from them to the saints, has often been an expected result from religious practices, and especially miracles, rather than medical ones. Acting with this belief, Christians applied to some people who were previously declared saints during various pandemics, assuming that they were protective from the current pandemic, and expected healing or protection from them. This deep-rooted belief and practice have also manifested itself during the pandemic we live in, with a saint considered to have lived a long time ago and arousing interest due to being the namesake of the pandemic. This saint, St. Corona, although there are different details about her in different sources, is a female figure accepted to have lived in the second century AD. It is known that over time, different groups such as lumberjacks, butchers, grave diggers, treasure hunters, those who are in financial trouble or who want to have plenty of money, lottery, gambling and betting players see her as a patron saint and a cult has formed around her name. With the Covid-19 pandemic, she came to the fore again due to the fact that she bears the same name as the virus that caused the pandemic, and it was claimed that she was the patron saint from pandemics. However, the existence of such a protective function in history cannot be clearly verified. St. Corona, if not in history, is now the patron saint of pandemics and especially the coronavirus pandemic. In this study, her process of becoming a patron saint from the pandemic will be followed through the data of digital media, and then her historical personality will be introduced.

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  • https://gloria.tv/post/Lk7WSGqUS6Dz292AELsUmP4mM?fbclid=IwAR1cwvf4FBIX66RB23bp9a9BbTc7QTs88tpajRtOPlIWzNoxjPKBwdQJoUQ

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Araştırmaları
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Halil ÖZEL 0000-0002-0906-6810

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Kabul Tarihi 8 Nisan 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022Cilt: 22 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD ÖZEL, Halil. “Covid-19 Salgınının Hatırlattığı Bir Hristiyan Azize: St. Corona Ve Kültü”. Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22/1 (Haziran 2022), 113-149. https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1064288.