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Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T)

Year 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, 531 - 557, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1187500

Abstract

The fact that the absolute is only God, and therefore, God is the first to come to mind when perfection is mentioned, is a common occurrence among believers. Perfectionism was also associated with God by the early personality theorists, moved away from its religious meaning over time, and its relationship with piety was little taken into account until recently. The fact that perfectionism, which has a religious motif in its essence, came to life in the field of religious sciences in general and psychology of religion in particular, in other words, bringing the concept of religious perfectionism into the literature became possible by a limited number of measurement attempts made after 2010. In this study, religious perfectionism, which is based on setting high standards for religious life, was discussed as a whole with order, discipline, inadequacy of one's self, perfect religious expectations and generalizations about others. Our study aims to fill the gap in the relevant literature by making the operational definition of religious perfectionism and measuring it. After determining the need for scale development and literature review, multidimensional perfectionism scales were reviewed and an item pool was created. Some features of perfectionism, such as discipline, generalization, and performance control, which are not dimensioned in multidimensional scales, were also adapted to piety. Previously developed religious perfectionism scales were also examined and, unlike them, we attempted to emphasize both the individual's religious life and the perfect God perception. The opinions of five experts in the field of Psychology of Religion were consulted about the adequacy of the items, so the first form of the scale was prepared for the pilot scheme. The study group consists of 610 Muslim participants who live in Turkey, believe in Allah (God), and regularly perform at least one worship. A total of 254 people, 192 (75.6%) of whom were female and 62 (24.4%) were male, participated in the pilot scheme. A total of 356 participants, 242 (68%) of whom were women and 114 (32%) were men, participated in the main study. The participants' educational background was undergraduate or postgraduate, and most were between the ages of 18-30. In order to determine the validity of the scale, construct validity and criterion-related validity were examined. Explanatory Factor Analysis (n=254) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (n=356) were used for construct validity and correlation analysis was performed for criterion-related validity. In addition, the differences between the item mean scores of the lower 27% and upper 27% groups were tested with the unrelated T-test for item discrimination. The reliability of the scale was determined by Cronbach's Alpha (a) and test-retest methods. As a result of Explanatory Factor Analysis, the scale was divided into two factors as Positive Religious perfectionism and Negative Religious perfectionism, as designed. The positive dimension of the scale included items that included the very high standards that the person set about God and his religious life, the order and discipline shown in worship. In the negative dimension of the scale, items such as finding the worship inadequate, doubting the actions, and worrying about making mistakes, as well as the general acceptances that the individual has about himself, God, or others, were included. The total score of the dimensions showed the general religious perfectionism level, and as the score gets higher, so does the religious perfectionism level. The scale can be used to measure the general religious perfectionism level based on the total score in the studies to be carried out. It can also be used by dividing it into its positive and negative factors. The internal consistency coefficient of Positive Religious perfectionism was 0.913; it was 0.876 for Negative Religious perfectionism, and the overall reliability for the 22-item structure of the scale was 0.904. As a result of the test-retest performed with a new study group of 95 people with an interval of 14 days, a significant positive correlation was found between the pretest and retest levels (r=0.960 p<0.01). In addition, it was determined that the participants' lower 27% and upper 27% values were significant for all items (p<0.01). As a result of the correlation analysis for criterion-related validity, significant positive relationships were found between religious perfectionism and perfectionism, and intrinsic religious motivation. Finally, the values obtained as a result of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis performed to confirm the factor structure were found to be in the range of acceptable (X2/df=3,306; RMSEA=0,079; GFI=0,92; AGFI=0,90; RMR=0,068; SRMR=0,052) and perfect fit criteria (CFI=0,96; NNFI=0,96; NFI=0,96). All these findings revealed that the scale was a valid and reliable measurement tool that measures religious perfectionism.

References

  • Adler, Alfred. Psikolojik Aktivite Üstünlük Duygusu ve Toplumsal İlgi . çev. Belkıs Çorakçı. Ankara: Say Yayınları, 2011-1985.
  • Adler, Alfred. Yaşamın Anlam ve Amacı . çev. Kamuran Şipal. Ankara: Say Yayınları, 2014-1985.
  • Antony, Martin M. - Swinson, Richard P. When Perfect Isnt Good Enough . New York: New Harbinger Publications, Inc, 2009.
  • Ashby, Jeffery S. - Huffman, Judy. “Religious Orientation and Multidimensional Perfectionism: Relationships and Implications”. Counseling and Values 43/3 (2011), 178-188.
  • Büyüköztürk, Şener. Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El kitabı : İstatistik , Araştırma Deseni , SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum . Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık, 2005.
  • Bergin, Allen E. vd. “Religious Life-stylesand Mental Health: An Exploratory Study”. Journal of Counseling Psychology 35/1 (1988) , 91-98.
  • Can, Abdullah. SPPS İle Bilimsel Araştırma Sürecinde Nicel Veri Analizi . Ankara: Pegem Akademi, 2016.
  • Craddock, Alan E. vd. “Family of Origin Qualities as Predictors of Religious Dysfunctional Perfectionism”. Journal of Psychology and Theology 38/3 (2010), 205-214.
  • Creswell, John W. Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches . çev. editörü Selçuk Beşir Demir. Ankara: Eğiten Kitap, 2017.
  • Crosby, Jesse M. vd. “Examination of The Relationship Between Perfectionism and Religiosity as Mediated by Psychological Inflexibility”. Current Psychology 30/2 (2011), 117-129.
  • Deuling, Jacqueline K. - Burns, Lawrence R. “Career Mothers and Perfectionism: Stress at Work and at Home”. Personality and Individual Differences 25/3 (1998), 477-485.
  • Dunn, John G. H. vd. “An Examination of the Domain Specificity of Perfectionism Among Intercollegiate Student-athletes”. Personality and Individual Differences 36/6 (2005), 1439-1448.
  • Frost, Randy O. vd. “The Dimensions of Perfectionism”. Cognitive Therapy and Research 14/5 (1990), 449-468.
  • Garner, David M. vd. “Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Eating Disorder Inventory for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia”. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2/2 (1983), 15–34.
  • Haase, Anne M. vd. “Domain-specificity in Perfectionism: Variations Across Domains of Life”. Personality and Individual Differences 55/6 (2013), 711-715.
  • Hamachek, Don E. “Psychodynamics of Normal and Neurotic Perfectionism”. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior 15/1 (1978), 27-33.
  • Heise, Robin G. - Steitz, Jean A. “Religious Perfectionism Versus Spiritual Growth”. Counseling and Values 36 (1991), 11-23.
  • Hewitt, Paul L. - Flett, Gordon L. “Perfectionism in The Self and Social Contexts: Conceptualizm, Assessment, and Association with Psychopathology”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60 (1991), 456-470.
  • Hill, Robert W. vd. “A New Measure of Perfectionism: The Perfectionism Inventory”. Journal of Personality Assessment 82/1 (2004), 80-91.
  • Hoge, Dean R. “A Validated Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale”. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 11/4 (1972), 369-376.
  • Horney, Karen. Nevrozlar ve İnsan Gelişimi - Kendini Gerçekleştirme Mücadelesi -. İstanbul: Sel Yayınları, 2015.
  • Johnson, Douglas P. - Slaney, Robert B. “Perfectionism: Scale Development and a Study of Perfectionistic Clients in Counseling”. Journal of College Student Development 37/1 (1996), 29-41.
  • Kılıç, Sadık. Benliğin İnşası . İstanbul: İnsan Yayınları, 2000.
  • Karaca, Faruk. “Din Psikolojisinde Metot Sorunu ve Bir Dindarlık Ölçeğinin Türk Toplumuna Standardizasyonu”. EKEV Akademi Dergisi 3/1 (2001), 187-202.
  • Karayiğit, Nuriman. “Olumlu-Olumsuz Mükemmeliyetçilik ve Dindarlık İlişkisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma”. The Journal of Academic Social Science 5/54 (2017), 450-468.
  • Khawaja, Nigar G. - Armstrong, Kerry A. “Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: Developing Shorter Versions Using an Australian Sample”. Australian Journal of Psychology 57/2 (2005), 129–138.
  • Kim, Jean. The Conceptualization and Assessment of the Perceived Consequences of Perfectionism . Michigan: University of Michigan, Department of Psychology, Honors Thesis, 2010.
  • McArdle, Siobhain. “Exploring Domain-specific Perfectionism”. J Pers , 78/2 (2010), 493-508.
  • Mebane, D. Louise - Ridley, Charles R. “The Role-sending of Perfectionism: Overcoming Counterfeit Spirituality”. Journal of Psychology and Theology 16 (1988), 332-339.
  • Peer, Samuel - McGraw, James S. “Mixed Methods Study of Perfectionism and Religiosity among Mormons: Implicatons for Cultural Competence and Clinical Practice”. Issues in Religion and Psychotherapy and Clinical Practice 38/1 (2017), 75-98.
  • Rickner, Ronald G. - Tan, Siang-Yang. “Psychopathology, Guilt, Perfectionism, and Family of Origin Functioning Among Protestant Clergy”. Journal of Psychology and Theology 22 (1994), 29-38.
  • Scherer, Robert F. vd. “Dimensionality of Coping: Factor Stability Using the Ways of Coping Questionnaire”. Psychological Reports 62/3 (1988), 763-770.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, Karin - Moosbrugger, Helfried. “Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures”. MPR-online 8/8 (2003), 23-74.
  • Shafran, Roz vd. Mükemmeliyetçilik . çev. Dilek Onuk. İstanbul: Kuraldışı, 2018.
  • Sica, Claudio vd. “Religiousness and Obsessive-compulsive Cognitions and Symptoms in an Italian Population”. Behav . Res. Ther 40 (2002), 813- 823.
  • Slaney, Robert B. - Ashby, Jeffrey. “Perfectionists: Study of a Criterion Group”. Journal of Counseling Development 74/4 (1996), 393–398.
  • Slaney, Robert B. vd. “A Programmatic Approach to Measuring Perfectionism: The Almost Perfect Scales”. Perfectionism: Theory, Research and Treatment . Ed. Gordon L. Flett – Paul L. Hewitt. 63-88). Washington: DC American Psychology Association, 2002.
  • Slaney, Robert B. vd. “The Revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation”. Counseling and Development 34 (2001), 130-145.
  • Smith, Martin M. vd. “The Big Three Perfectionism Scale: A New Measure of Perfectionism”. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 34/7 (2016), 670-687.
  • Sorotzkin, Benzion. “The Quest For Perfection: Avoiding Guilt or Avoiding Shame”. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 22/3 (1985), 564-571.
  • Steffen, Patrick R. “Perfectionism and Life Aspirations in Intrinsically and Extrinsically Religious Individuals”. Journal of Religion and Health 53/4 (2013) , 945-958.
  • Stoeber, Joachim - Stoeber, Franziska S. “Domains of Perfectionism: Prevalence and Relationships with Perfectionism, Gender, Age, and Satisfaction with Life”. Personality and Individual Differences 46/4 (2009), 530-535.
  • Stoeber, Joachim vd. “The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial Structure and Relationships With Perfectionism, Performance Perfectionism, Affect, and Depressive Symptoms”. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 46/3 (2013), 178 –191.
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  • Watson, Paul J. vd. “Religion and Rationality: I. Rational-emotive and Religious Understandings of Perfectionism and Other Irrationalities”. Jornal of Psychology and Christianility 13/4 (1994), 356-372.
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Mükemmeliyetçi Dindarlık Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi ve Geçerliği-Türkçe Versiyon (MDÖ-T)

Year 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, 531 - 557, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1187500

Abstract

Mutlak olanın yalnızca Tanrı olması ve dolayısıyla mükemmellik denilince akla ilk Tanrı’nın gelmesi, inanan bireyler arasında olağan bir durumdur. Mükemmeliyetçilik ilk dönem kişilik teorisyenleri tarafından da Tanrı ile bağdaştırılmış, zamanla dini anlamından uzaklaşmış ve dindarlıkla ilişkisi yakın zamanlara kadar pek az dikkate alınmıştır. Özü itibariyle dini bir motif taşıyan mükemmeliyetçiliğin genelde din bilimleri özelde ise din psikolojisi alanında hayat bulması, diğer bir ifadeyle mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık kavramının literatüre kazandırılması, 2010 sonrası yapılan sınırlı sayıdaki ölçüm teşebbüsleriyle mümkün olmuştur. Bu bağlamda, mükemmeliyetçi dindarlığın Türkçe literatürde karşılık bulması amacıyla gerçekleştirdiğimiz bu çalışmada, temeli dini yaşantıyla ilgili yüksek standartlar belirleme üzerine kurulan mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık, ibadetler konusunda düzen, disiplin, kişinin kendisini yetersiz görmesi, başkaları hakkında sahip olunan kusursuz dini beklenti ve genellemelerle bir bütün olarak ele alınmıştır. Çalışmamızın mükemmeliyetçi dindarlığın ölçümünün yanında operasyonel tanımının yapılmasıyla, ilgili literatürdeki boşluğu doldurması hedeflenmiştir. Ölçek geliştirmek için ihtiyacın belirlenmesi ve literatür taramasının ardından çok boyutlu mükemmeliyetçilik ölçekleri gözden geçirilerek madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Mükemmeliyetçiliğin çok boyutlu ölçeklerde boyutlandırılmayan disiplin, genelleme, performans kontrolü gibi birtakım özellikleri de dindarlığa uyarlanmıştır. Önceden geliştirilen mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık ölçekleri de incelenmiş, onlardan farklı olarak bireyin hem dini yaşantısına hem de mükemmel Tanrı algısına vurgu yapılmaya çalışılmıştır. Maddelerin yeterliği hakkında Din Psikolojisi alanında uzman 5 kişinin görüşüne başvurulmuş, böylelikle ölçeğin ilk formu pilot çalışma için hazırlanmıştır. Çalışmanın araştırma grubunu, Türkiye’de yaşayan, Allah’a inanan ve en az bir ibadetini düzenli olarak yerine getiren toplam 610 Müslüman katılımcı oluşturmaktadır. Pilot çalışmaya 192’si (%75,6) kadın, 62’si (%24,4) erkek olmak üzere 254 kişi katılmıştır. Ana çalışmaya ise 242’si (%68) kadın, 114’ü (%32) erkek olmak üzere 356 kişi katılmıştır. Katılımcıların eğitim durumu lisans veya lisansüstü, büyük oranının yaş aralığı ise 18-30’dur. Ölçeğin geçerliğini belirlemek için yapı geçerliği ve ölçüt bağıntı geçerliğine bakılmıştır. Yapı geçerliği için Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi (n=254) ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi (n=356), ölçüt bağıntı geçerliği için korelasyon analizi yapılmıştır. Bunun yanında madde ayırt ediciliği için, alt %27 ve üst %27’lik grupların madde ortalama puanlarının aralarındaki farklar ilişkisiz t-testi ile sınanmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirliği Cronbach’s Alpha (a) ve test-tekrar test yöntemleri ile belirlenmiştir. Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi sonucunda ölçek, tasarlandığı gibi, Olumlu Mükemmeliyetçi Dindarlık ve Olumsuz Mükemmeliyetçi Dindarlık olmak üzere iki faktöre ayrılmıştır. Ölçeğin olumlu boyutuna kişinin Tanrı ve dini yaşantısı hakkında belirlediği çok yüksek standartlar, ibadetler konusunda gösterilen düzen ve disiplin; olumsuz boyutuna yapılan ibadetleri yetersiz bulma, eylemlerden şüphe etme ve hata yapma kaygısı gibi durumların yanında bireyin kendisi, Tanrı veya başkaları hakkında sahip olduğu genel kabulleri içeren maddeler dahil olmuştur. Boyutların toplam puanı, genel mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık düzeyini göstermekte olup puan yükseldikçe mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık düzeyi artmaktadır. Ölçek, yapılacak çalışmalarda toplam puan baz alınarak genel mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık düzeyini ölçmek için kullanılabileceği gibi, olumlu ve olumsuz şeklinde faktörlerine ayrılarak da kullanılabilir. Olumlu Mükemmeliyetçi Dindarlığın iç tutarlılık katsayısı 0,913, Olumsuz Mükemmeliyetçi Dindarlığın 0,876, ölçeğin 22 maddelik yapısı için genel güvenirliğin 0,904 olduğu görülmüştür. 95 kişilik yeni bir araştırma grubuyla 14 gün arayla yapılan test-tekrar test sonucunda ön test ile tekrar test düzeyleri arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki saptanmıştır (r=0.960 p<0.01). Bunun yanında katılımcıların %27 alt ve üst değerlerinin tüm maddeler için anlamlı olduğu belirlenmiştir (p<0.01). Ölçüt bağıntı geçerliği için yapılan korelasyon analizi sonucunda mükemmeliyetçi dindarlık ile mükemmeliyetçilik ve içsel dini motivasyon arasında pozitif yönlü anlamlı ilişkiler saptanmıştır. Son olarak faktör yapısını doğrulamak için yapılan Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi sonucunda sağlanan değerlerin kabul edilebilir (X2/df=3,306; RMSEA=0,079; GFI=0,92; AGFI=0,90; RMR=0,068; SRMR=0,052) ve mükemmel (CFI=0,96; NNFI=0,96; NFI=0,96) uyum kriteri aralığında olduğu görülmüştür. Tüm bu bulgular ölçeğin, mükemmeliyetçi dindarlığı ölçen geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur.

References

  • Adler, Alfred. Psikolojik Aktivite Üstünlük Duygusu ve Toplumsal İlgi . çev. Belkıs Çorakçı. Ankara: Say Yayınları, 2011-1985.
  • Adler, Alfred. Yaşamın Anlam ve Amacı . çev. Kamuran Şipal. Ankara: Say Yayınları, 2014-1985.
  • Antony, Martin M. - Swinson, Richard P. When Perfect Isnt Good Enough . New York: New Harbinger Publications, Inc, 2009.
  • Ashby, Jeffery S. - Huffman, Judy. “Religious Orientation and Multidimensional Perfectionism: Relationships and Implications”. Counseling and Values 43/3 (2011), 178-188.
  • Büyüköztürk, Şener. Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El kitabı : İstatistik , Araştırma Deseni , SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum . Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık, 2005.
  • Bergin, Allen E. vd. “Religious Life-stylesand Mental Health: An Exploratory Study”. Journal of Counseling Psychology 35/1 (1988) , 91-98.
  • Can, Abdullah. SPPS İle Bilimsel Araştırma Sürecinde Nicel Veri Analizi . Ankara: Pegem Akademi, 2016.
  • Craddock, Alan E. vd. “Family of Origin Qualities as Predictors of Religious Dysfunctional Perfectionism”. Journal of Psychology and Theology 38/3 (2010), 205-214.
  • Creswell, John W. Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches . çev. editörü Selçuk Beşir Demir. Ankara: Eğiten Kitap, 2017.
  • Crosby, Jesse M. vd. “Examination of The Relationship Between Perfectionism and Religiosity as Mediated by Psychological Inflexibility”. Current Psychology 30/2 (2011), 117-129.
  • Deuling, Jacqueline K. - Burns, Lawrence R. “Career Mothers and Perfectionism: Stress at Work and at Home”. Personality and Individual Differences 25/3 (1998), 477-485.
  • Dunn, John G. H. vd. “An Examination of the Domain Specificity of Perfectionism Among Intercollegiate Student-athletes”. Personality and Individual Differences 36/6 (2005), 1439-1448.
  • Frost, Randy O. vd. “The Dimensions of Perfectionism”. Cognitive Therapy and Research 14/5 (1990), 449-468.
  • Garner, David M. vd. “Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Eating Disorder Inventory for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia”. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2/2 (1983), 15–34.
  • Haase, Anne M. vd. “Domain-specificity in Perfectionism: Variations Across Domains of Life”. Personality and Individual Differences 55/6 (2013), 711-715.
  • Hamachek, Don E. “Psychodynamics of Normal and Neurotic Perfectionism”. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior 15/1 (1978), 27-33.
  • Heise, Robin G. - Steitz, Jean A. “Religious Perfectionism Versus Spiritual Growth”. Counseling and Values 36 (1991), 11-23.
  • Hewitt, Paul L. - Flett, Gordon L. “Perfectionism in The Self and Social Contexts: Conceptualizm, Assessment, and Association with Psychopathology”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60 (1991), 456-470.
  • Hill, Robert W. vd. “A New Measure of Perfectionism: The Perfectionism Inventory”. Journal of Personality Assessment 82/1 (2004), 80-91.
  • Hoge, Dean R. “A Validated Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale”. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 11/4 (1972), 369-376.
  • Horney, Karen. Nevrozlar ve İnsan Gelişimi - Kendini Gerçekleştirme Mücadelesi -. İstanbul: Sel Yayınları, 2015.
  • Johnson, Douglas P. - Slaney, Robert B. “Perfectionism: Scale Development and a Study of Perfectionistic Clients in Counseling”. Journal of College Student Development 37/1 (1996), 29-41.
  • Kılıç, Sadık. Benliğin İnşası . İstanbul: İnsan Yayınları, 2000.
  • Karaca, Faruk. “Din Psikolojisinde Metot Sorunu ve Bir Dindarlık Ölçeğinin Türk Toplumuna Standardizasyonu”. EKEV Akademi Dergisi 3/1 (2001), 187-202.
  • Karayiğit, Nuriman. “Olumlu-Olumsuz Mükemmeliyetçilik ve Dindarlık İlişkisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma”. The Journal of Academic Social Science 5/54 (2017), 450-468.
  • Khawaja, Nigar G. - Armstrong, Kerry A. “Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: Developing Shorter Versions Using an Australian Sample”. Australian Journal of Psychology 57/2 (2005), 129–138.
  • Kim, Jean. The Conceptualization and Assessment of the Perceived Consequences of Perfectionism . Michigan: University of Michigan, Department of Psychology, Honors Thesis, 2010.
  • McArdle, Siobhain. “Exploring Domain-specific Perfectionism”. J Pers , 78/2 (2010), 493-508.
  • Mebane, D. Louise - Ridley, Charles R. “The Role-sending of Perfectionism: Overcoming Counterfeit Spirituality”. Journal of Psychology and Theology 16 (1988), 332-339.
  • Peer, Samuel - McGraw, James S. “Mixed Methods Study of Perfectionism and Religiosity among Mormons: Implicatons for Cultural Competence and Clinical Practice”. Issues in Religion and Psychotherapy and Clinical Practice 38/1 (2017), 75-98.
  • Rickner, Ronald G. - Tan, Siang-Yang. “Psychopathology, Guilt, Perfectionism, and Family of Origin Functioning Among Protestant Clergy”. Journal of Psychology and Theology 22 (1994), 29-38.
  • Scherer, Robert F. vd. “Dimensionality of Coping: Factor Stability Using the Ways of Coping Questionnaire”. Psychological Reports 62/3 (1988), 763-770.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, Karin - Moosbrugger, Helfried. “Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures”. MPR-online 8/8 (2003), 23-74.
  • Shafran, Roz vd. Mükemmeliyetçilik . çev. Dilek Onuk. İstanbul: Kuraldışı, 2018.
  • Sica, Claudio vd. “Religiousness and Obsessive-compulsive Cognitions and Symptoms in an Italian Population”. Behav . Res. Ther 40 (2002), 813- 823.
  • Slaney, Robert B. - Ashby, Jeffrey. “Perfectionists: Study of a Criterion Group”. Journal of Counseling Development 74/4 (1996), 393–398.
  • Slaney, Robert B. vd. “A Programmatic Approach to Measuring Perfectionism: The Almost Perfect Scales”. Perfectionism: Theory, Research and Treatment . Ed. Gordon L. Flett – Paul L. Hewitt. 63-88). Washington: DC American Psychology Association, 2002.
  • Slaney, Robert B. vd. “The Revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation”. Counseling and Development 34 (2001), 130-145.
  • Smith, Martin M. vd. “The Big Three Perfectionism Scale: A New Measure of Perfectionism”. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 34/7 (2016), 670-687.
  • Sorotzkin, Benzion. “The Quest For Perfection: Avoiding Guilt or Avoiding Shame”. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 22/3 (1985), 564-571.
  • Steffen, Patrick R. “Perfectionism and Life Aspirations in Intrinsically and Extrinsically Religious Individuals”. Journal of Religion and Health 53/4 (2013) , 945-958.
  • Stoeber, Joachim - Stoeber, Franziska S. “Domains of Perfectionism: Prevalence and Relationships with Perfectionism, Gender, Age, and Satisfaction with Life”. Personality and Individual Differences 46/4 (2009), 530-535.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Religion
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Nuriman KARAYİGİT ULU> (Primary Author)
HARRAN UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF THEOLOGY
0000-0001-8669-336X
Türkiye


Ali Ulvi MEHMEDOĞLU>
MARMARA UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF THEOLOGY
0000-0001-8546-9614
Türkiye

Publication Date December 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { marife1187500, journal = {Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi}, eissn = {2630-5550}, address = {Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi, Meram/Konya}, publisher = {Yediveren Kitap}, year = {2022}, volume = {22}, number = {2}, pages = {531 - 557}, doi = {10.33420/marife.1187500}, title = {Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T)}, key = {cite}, author = {Karayigit Ulu, Nuriman and Mehmedoğlu, Ali Ulvi} }
APA Karayigit Ulu, N. & Mehmedoğlu, A. U. (2022). Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T) . Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi , 22 (2) , 531-557 . DOI: 10.33420/marife.1187500
MLA Karayigit Ulu, N. , Mehmedoğlu, A. U. "Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T)" . Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22 (2022 ): 531-557 <http://marife.org/en/pub/issue/74715/1187500>
Chicago Karayigit Ulu, N. , Mehmedoğlu, A. U. "Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T)". Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22 (2022 ): 531-557
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T) AU - NurimanKarayigit Ulu, Ali UlviMehmedoğlu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.33420/marife.1187500 DO - 10.33420/marife.1187500 T2 - Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 531 EP - 557 VL - 22 IS - 2 SN - -2630-5550 M3 - doi: 10.33420/marife.1187500 UR - https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1187500 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Marife Turkish Journal of Religious Studies Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T) %A Nuriman Karayigit Ulu , Ali Ulvi Mehmedoğlu %T Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T) %D 2022 %J Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi %P -2630-5550 %V 22 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33420/marife.1187500 %U 10.33420/marife.1187500
ISNAD Karayigit Ulu, Nuriman , Mehmedoğlu, Ali Ulvi . "Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T)". Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22 / 2 (December 2022): 531-557 . https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1187500
AMA Karayigit Ulu N. , Mehmedoğlu A. U. Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T). Marife. 2022; 22(2): 531-557.
Vancouver Karayigit Ulu N. , Mehmedoğlu A. U. Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T). Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2022; 22(2): 531-557.
IEEE N. Karayigit Ulu and A. U. Mehmedoğlu , "Development and Validation of Religious Perfectionism Scale-Turkish Version (RPS-T)", Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 531-557, Dec. 2022, doi:10.33420/marife.1187500