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Japanese New Religious Movement Ōmoto's Beliefs

Year 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, 655 - 683, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1188589

Abstract

Ōmoto is a Shinto-based Japanese New Religious Movement (NRM), the most popular one of Japanese Religious History. The movement, which was initiated in the Meiji Period (1868-1912) in Japanese History, came to the fore in the periods of Taishō (1912-1927) and Shōwa (1927-1945) by combining their beliefs and practices with their worldly-political thoughts. The movement, which was pacified with the Modern Period (1945-), entered the process of division with the influence of different tendencies. Today, they continue their activities as three separate religious groups. Ōmoto includes three basic teachings: the "Three Great Learnings", the "The Four Teachings" and the "The Four Principles". These are the beliefs that regulate the relationship between man and God and how they should be lived. Firstly, Ōmoto presents an inclusive religious worldview within the framework of Three Great Learnings: to think about the identity of true god by observing heaven and earth, to consider the power of god by seeing that the universe is not separate but one, and to think about the true god by being prepared for the nature of life. Secondly, there are the Four Teachings, namely Matsuri, Oshie, Narawashi, and Nariwai. Matsuri refers to each regular or irregular act of worship including offering and prayer in Ōmoto. Oshie means teaching and refers to the two main scriptures of the movement of Ōmoto Shin’yu and Reikai Monogatari. Narawashi describes the belief that human life consists of habits and man must arrange his habits according to God's will for god-human harmony. On the other hand, Nariwai means proper work and expresses the belief that one should focus on improving the results achieved with the soul. According to this, it is believed that the results will be good if a person uses own soul well and the results will be bad if person uses it badly. Thirdly, there are the Four Principles, which are Seiketsu Shugi, Rakuten Shugi, Shinten Shugi, and Tōitsu Shugi. Seiketsu Shugi means purification of the mind and body, and it means to get rid of polluting situations such as death, illness and immorality. It is stated that getting rid of them is possible with purification rituals. Rakuten Shugi means optimism, expressing a belief that the world will become a better world of salvation. Shinten Shugi means progressivism and emphasizes the belief that people should develop and progress in social life by renewing their mind and body. Tōitsu Shugi, on the other hand, means unification and explains the belief that the duality between good and bad man, rich and poor, god and man in the universe should be eliminated. Accordingly, there must be order and unity in order to avoid discrimination and injustice in society. In addition to being a Shintoist-oriented NRM, Ōmoto has an inclusive monotheistic belief in God and believes that all religions in the world come from a single source. Accordingly, they believe that all religions' beliefs and worships are practiced for only one God and they each one carries a piece of truth. The supreme god, called Ōmotosume Ōmikami in Ōmoto, is believed to have a dual aspect as Kunitokotachi no Mikoto and Toyokumunu no Mikoto. Their sacred texts, their beliefs about the universe and salvation have also developed in this way. There are two scriptures called Ōmoto Shin'yu and Reikai Monogatari in Ōmoto. The first one is attributed to Nao Dehuchi, the second one is to Onisaburō Deguchi. In Ōmoto, there are two main universe as the big cosmos called Daiuchū and the small cosmos called Shōuchū. Daiuchū refers to thousands of unknown universes including the human universe, while Shōuchū refers to the human universe and world. There are three types of salvation beliefs in Ōmoto, which are also seen as stages of salvation. The first is the application of individual rules, the second is the application of social rules, and the third is that the salvation is possible when the world becomes the world of salvation with the coming of the savior. Our research on Ōmoto's beliefs consists of six parts: Basic Teachings, Understanding of God, Understanding of Sacred Man, Sacred Texts, Understanding of Universe and Understanding of Salvation. Our study is the first comprehensive study in terms of examining Ōmoto beliefs in our country and world literature, and it is aimed to contribute to further researches through this study.

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Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları

Year 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, 655 - 683, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1188589

Abstract

Ōmoto, Japon Dini Tarihi içerisinde adından en çok söz ettiren, Şinto temelli bir Japon Yeni Dini Hareketi (YDH)’dir. Japon Tarihi’nde Meiji Dönemi (1868-1912) itibariyle başlatılan hareket inanç ve ibadetleriyle dünyevi-politik düşüncelerini birleştirerek Taishō (1912-1927) ve Shōwa (1927-1945) dönemlerinde öne çıkmıştır. Modern Dönemle (1945-) birlikte pasifize olan hareket, içerisinde farklı eğilimlerin etkisiyle bölünme sürecine girmiştir. Günümüzde üç ayrı dini grup şeklinde faaliyetlerini devam ettirmektedirler. Ōmoto’nun “Üç Büyük Öğrenim”, “Dört İlke” ve “Dört Prensip” olmak üzere üç temel öğretisi bulunmaktadır. Bunlar, insan ile Tanrı’nın ilişkisini düzenleyen ve nasıl yaşanması gerektiğiyle ilgili inançlardır. Buna göre İlk olarak Ōmoto cennet ve dünyayı gözlemleyerek gerçek tanrının kimliği hakkında düşünmek, evrenin gelişimin ayrı değil bir olduğunu görerek tanrının gücünü düşünmek ve hayatın doğasına hazırlıklı bir biçimde gerçek tanrı hakkında düşünmek biçiminde tasavvur ettikleri Üç Büyük Öğrenim çerçevesinde kapsayıcı bir dini dünya görüşü sunmaktadır. İkinci olarak Dört Öğreti bulunmakta bunları Matsuri, Oshie, Narawashi ve Nariwai oluşturmaktadır. Matsuri, Ōmoto’da düzenli veya düzensiz yapılan, sunu ve duayı içeren ibadetlerin her birine denmektedir. Oshie, öğreti anlamına gelmektedir. Ōmoto Shin’yu ve Reikai Monogatari hareketin iki ana kutsal metnini ifade etmektedir. Narawashi, insan hayatının alışkanlıklardan ibaret olduğu, tanrı-insan uyumu için insanın alışkanlıklarını tanrının isteğine göre düzenlemesi gerektiği inancını anlatmaktadır. Nariwai ise uygun çalışma anlamına gelmektedir. İnsanın ruhuyla elde ettiği sonuçları iyileştirmeye odaklanması gerektiği inancını ifade etmektedir. Buna göre insan ruhunu iyi kullanırsa sonuçlar iyi, kötü kullanırsa sonuçların kötü olacağına inanılmaktadır. Üçüncü olarak Dört İlke bulunmakta, bunları Seiketsu Shugi, Rakuten Shugi, Shinten Shugi ve Tōitsu Shugi oluşturmaktadır. Seiketsu Shugi, zihin ve bedenin arınması anlamına gelmekte, ölüm, hastalık ve ahlaksızlık gibi kirletici olduğu kabul edilen durumlardan kurtulmak kastedilmektedir. Bunlardan kurtulmanın ise arınma ritüelleri ile mümkün olduğu ifade edilmektedir. Rakuten Shugi, iyimserlik anlamına gelmektedir. Dünyanın daha iyi bir kurtuluş dünyası haline geleceğine dair bir inancı ifade etmektedir. Shinten Shugi, ilerlemecilik anlamındadır. İnsanın zihin ve bedenini yenileyerek sosyal hayatta gelişmesi ve ilerlemesi gerektiği inancını vurgulamaktadır. Tōitsu Shugi ise birleşim anlamındadır. Evrende bulunan iyi-kötü insan, zengin-fakir, tanrı-insan arasındaki ikiliğin ortadan kaldırılması gerektiği inancını açıklamaktadır. Buna göre toplumda ayrımcılıkların ve adaletsizliğin olmaması için düzen ve birliğin olması gerekmektedir. Ōmoto, Şintoist eksenli bir YDH olmasının yanında kapsayıcı monoteistik bir Tanrı inancına sahiptir. Dünya üzerindeki tüm dinlerin tek bir kaynaktan geldiğine inanmaktadır. Buna göre onlar, tüm dinlerin inanç ve ibadetleri tek bir Tanrıya yapıldığına ve hakikatten birer parça taşıdıklarına inanmaktadırlar. Ōmoto’da Ōmotosume Ōmikami adındaki yüce tanrının Kunitokotachi no Mikoto ve Toyokumunu no Mikoto biçiminde ikili yönü olduğuna inanılmaktadır. Onların kutsal metinleri, evren ve kurtuluşa dair inançları da bu yönde gelişim göstermiştir. Ōmoto’da Ōmoto Shin’yu ve Reikai Monogatari adında iki kutsal metin bulunmaktadır. İlki Nao Dehuchi’ye, ikincisi Onisaburō Deguchi’ye atfedilmektedir. Ōmoto’da Daiuchū adlı büyük kozmos, Shōuchū adlı küçük kozmos şeklinde iki ana evren anlayışı bulunmaktadır. Daiuchū insan evrenini de içine alan bilinmeyen binlerce evreni, Shōuchū ise insan evrenini ve dünyasını ifade etmektedir. Ōmoto’da üç tür kurtuluş inanışı bulunmakta, aynı zamanda bunlar kurtuluşun aşamaları olarak görülmektedir. İlki bireysel kuralların uygulanması, ikincisi toplumsal kuralların uygulanması, üçüncüsü ise kurtarıcını gelişiyle dünyanın kurtuluş dünyası haline gelişiyle kurtuluşun mümkün olabileceği söylemektedir. Ōmoto’nun inançlarını ele aldığımız çalışmamız Temel Öğretileri, Tanrı Anlayışı, Kutsal Kişi Anlayışı, Kutsal Metinleri, Evren Anlayışı ve Kurtuluş Anlayışı olmak üzere altı bölümden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmamız ülkemiz ve dünya literatüründe Ōmoto inançlarının incelenmesi açısından kapsayıcı nitelikte ilk araştırmadır. Çalışmamızın literatüre katkı sağlaması ve yeni araştırmalara faydalı olması amaçlanmıştır.

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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Religion
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Yetkin KARAOĞLU> (Primary Author)
ERCIYES UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5036-2590
Türkiye

Publication Date December 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { marife1188589, journal = {Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi}, eissn = {2630-5550}, address = {Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi, Meram/Konya}, publisher = {Yediveren Kitap}, year = {2022}, volume = {22}, number = {2}, pages = {655 - 683}, doi = {10.33420/marife.1188589}, title = {Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları}, key = {cite}, author = {Karaoğlu, Yetkin} }
APA Karaoğlu, Y. (2022). Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları . Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi , 22 (2) , 655-683 . DOI: 10.33420/marife.1188589
MLA Karaoğlu, Y. "Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları" . Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22 (2022 ): 655-683 <http://marife.org/en/pub/issue/74715/1188589>
Chicago Karaoğlu, Y. "Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları". Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22 (2022 ): 655-683
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Japanese New Religious Movement Ōmoto's Beliefs AU - YetkinKaraoğlu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.33420/marife.1188589 DO - 10.33420/marife.1188589 T2 - Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 655 EP - 683 VL - 22 IS - 2 SN - -2630-5550 M3 - doi: 10.33420/marife.1188589 UR - https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1188589 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Marife Turkish Journal of Religious Studies Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları %A Yetkin Karaoğlu %T Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları %D 2022 %J Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi %P -2630-5550 %V 22 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33420/marife.1188589 %U 10.33420/marife.1188589
ISNAD Karaoğlu, Yetkin . "Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları". Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi 22 / 2 (December 2022): 655-683 . https://doi.org/10.33420/marife.1188589
AMA Karaoğlu Y. Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları. Marife. 2022; 22(2): 655-683.
Vancouver Karaoğlu Y. Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları. Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2022; 22(2): 655-683.
IEEE Y. Karaoğlu , "Japon Yeni Dinî Hareketi Ōmoto’nun İnançları", Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 655-683, Dec. 2022, doi:10.33420/marife.1188589